This information was given to Biruni, who tapped this unique source to complete his knowledge of Turkish chronology, while staying with Mahmud of Ghazna at the time. Turan, op. They do not remain at their position, however. The Moon does not travel around the Earth in a plane that always cuts the ecliptic at the same points, but its orbital plane changes its place slowly backwards, like a wobbling spinning top, making one complete tour through the zodiac in approx. Their position at any time during the day 57, is defined in degrees as the distance between Moon and Sun added to the degree of the ascendant, where the zodiac ascends over the Eastern horizon.
Another example in Indian art is a zodiac design with seven planets and two dragon nodes on a Hindu temple: F. Ginzel, Chronologie, vol. If we define the time of sunrise as usual, i. A computer check gives us 9h23m19s local Istanbul time MLT. A closer look at the salname could possibly offer an explanation, why the takvim differs so much from the astronomical result. The relatively recent Iranian salname lists several equinox times for Isfahan from which to choose according to the preferred source: e.
It is, however, consistent with similarly phrased metaphors used for dating Nawruz in B. Kurz, Almanach, pp. No prayer times are listed unlike those in later takvims. The reason must be the still general absence of clocks or watches in 18th century Turkey; only the muezzin could call to prayer.
These places are not defined by their highest or lowest position in one of the known astronomical coordinates, as the terms might suggest, but by a certain degree a planet has reached in one of the zodiac signs. Friday Thursday These dates have been omitted in the takvim for unknown reasons. Each lunar mansion occupies approx. There is a striking parallel of these Moon-related mansions with the traditional concept of the zodiac as the background for the annual movement of the Sun.
Kunitzsch, Sternnamen, pp. Even a monograph published by the University of Kuwait as late as ! The heliacal rising of fixed stars is changing over longer periods, because the Earth axis moves in a complete circle every years like the wobbling motion of a spinning top, when some force is exerted from the side i. The Sumerians, the Babylonians, and the ancient Greeks also used the heliacal risings of various stars for the timing of agricultural activities.
The elaborate rules of lunar mansions are also known in Western astrology, which even uses the Arabic terms for them. Of course his Iranian sense of intellectual superiority does not allow him to give credit to the Arabs, whose terms he used nevertheless, but to the Greek and Indians, who enjoyed his respect.
Table 2 in the annex records the days in the Julian calendar, when the fixed stars associated with their lunar mansions made their first heliacal rise in that year, i. They advance from AD, the year recorded by Biruni, to the takvims of and by 7 [or 6] days and 9 days, respectively. To check this we have Astrolabe Mater by Hans Baumann 73 to apply two opposite rules: 1.
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Due to the precession of the Earth axis and calculated in the astronomically correct Gregorian calendar the fixed stars rose - counted from - approx. As the Julian year is too long astronomically, all dates obtained in the Gregorian calendar have to be moved back again by approx. By applying both rules we get the correct advance of Julian dates for table 2, which would be 5 days from to both and Also Kurz interprets the postponement of lunar mansion dates as a result of the precession idem, Almanach, p.
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The result for takvim is confirmed by the identical data of takvim analysed in Kurz, Almanach, pp. Some include Christian holidays in addition to Islamic feasts, some completely ignore other religions, while some also record Jewish holidays that are left out in other calendars. It is still remarkable that the takvim published here, which was made for Sultan Mahmud I.
Christian Julian AD Sunday 6. This definition apparently tries to redraft in Ottoman terms 79 the Christian Easter formula confirmed by the Council of Nicaea in AD, viz. The Islamic day starts at sunset of the day that precedes the Christian date that is obtained by conversion programmes.
This is because they are based on the later and larger part of the Islamic day midnight until the following sunset and not on its start at the previous sunset.. Easter is after Wednesday on or following the 15th of the Arabic month, the standard rule in pre-modern societies that included both start and end date in computing time. These rules are important in years like , , , , , , , when the 15 th of the lunar month starting in March is marked as a Thursday in the data conversion programmes. This is however true only for the later part and not for the start at sunset on Wednesday.
The ecclesiastical rule that the full Moon preceding Easter has to follow the vernal equinox on The fifteenth of an Islamic month, which starts in the range from 2nd 82 to 5th March, will however necessarily be a date before the vernal equinox on It can therefore not be considered as the Easter full Moon, although according to the formula it would be.
Example years are , , , and The true countdown to Easter starts in these cases with the next full Moon one month later. With a different wording ' Yet there are even more complications. Ecclesiastic rules going back to the 6th Century AD define Easter as the Sunday following a special Easter full Moon date, the Luna XIV paschalis, which is close to, but not necessarily identical with the astronomical full Moon.
Therefore Easter was celebrated on the following Sundays Even one mistake would be one too many for a useful short rule to calculate Easter. I suspect that the author of the Hamburg ruzname created and possibly checked it for a few dates and that it was never applied in reality. Its results would always have needed to be confirmed by the Greek Orthodox church and their Easter tables. Friday 1. I disagree also with their opinion that Beiza could be a wrong Arabic spelling of Paskalya Eastern , as it is certainly a variant of Beitza, the Hebrew term for a hard-boiled egg used during the Jewish Passah celebration.
One of the twelve Great Feasts of the Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar. The date universally accepted, also in the Greek Orthodox Church, for the nativity of the Theotokos, the Mother of God, is 8. The other Egyptian calendars do not mention that feast. Julian Old Era respectively, which is not conform with any of the afore mentioned dates.
The moon is in Sagittarius.
Saturday The date marks the dedication of the church of the Holy Sepulchre in , which is nine years after St. Helena, the mother of the Roman Emperor Constantine I. The actual finding was on Pellat, Cinq Calendries Egyptiens, Cairo Monday 1. This date makes it perfectly clear that 1.
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A remotely possible interpretation would be that haml-i Meryem does not mean the day of the Annunciation but a date when she was already visibly pregnant with eight months. Nestorians formed a sizeable minority in Mesopotamia, therefore their tradition could perhaps explain that date in the almanac. I would like to agree with Kurz, however, who sees 86 Jabarti, vol. Pellat, op. Nestorian Christians were largely represented in Ulug Beg's Central Asia, and it would confirm once more the importance of that astronomer for even late Ottoman almanacs.
There is still no explanation, however, for the Coptic tradition in the work of the Egyptian historian Maqrizi , who died in , i. Already Biruni reports that while the annunciation date of Even the Jacobite Syrian Church according to one tradition, which is apparently forgotten now, dated the Annunciation on a Sunday in December.
According to a table on p. Tuesday 6.
In the Orthodox church a priest during an open air ceremony used to toss a cross into the water as a sign for that baptism. Monday 9. Paskha, the Orthodox Eastern, in fell on Sunday For the Sunnis it is a day of commended fasting. It is remarkable that takvims in mainly Sunni Ottoman Turkey commemorate this event as well. Tuesday 12 Rabi I. According to one tradition it also commemorates the day, when the qibla, the prayer direction, was changed from Jerusalem to Mecca.
You Are Sagittarius
The reason for this omission could be that the precise date for fast breaking is still primarily defined not by the cyclical calendar or even by astronomical calculations, but by the actual vision of the new crescent Moon unlike in other months, where this rule is no more observed in practice. It is true that the same rule applies to the beginning as well as to the end of Ramadan that are both defined in conception of the Prophet.
In one instance, however, the author explained the slightly embarrassing birth date by a mistake in dating the marriage that according to him no source given was contracted one month earlier, i. Schrieke- J. But whereas a calendar is by definition a collection of dates, the associated feast was perhaps omitted for the sake of orthodoxy. After adding these five days, we reach In this day corresponds to 2. It is therefore not more than a speculation, however tempting it might be.
It is surprising that late Ottoman takvims remember such an obscure feast that dates back many centuries to an equally obscure Central Asian monarch and that is not mentioned anywhere else. Wednesday 23 Muharram 9. Biruni is giving a different date here. It is a time of bad weather according to meteorological folklore.
Wednesday, 7 Safar Endergah of the Yezdegerd Era. Saturday, 27 Ramadan 6.
Sagittariuses are also very loyal to their country. Many war heroes bear the Sagittarius zodiac sign. Sagittariuses are also renowned for their humor and wit. If they are around, be prepared for a healthy dose of laughter. So if you want your social gathering to be a success, make sure you include a few Sagittariuses on your guest list. Another notable quality of the Sagittarius is their sense of righteousness. They have a lot of integrity and will never be caught in acts of deceit. They also disapprove of dishonesty in others and are suitable for positions of high responsibility.
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